In the fourth part of this series, we will continue to analyze the correlation between the charts of the greatest instants of Venus’s passage over the Sun with how beauty was perceived during the 11th and the 12th century.
For the years 1032 and 1040, the dates for the two pairs of transits are based on the calculations made by Fred Espenak, NASA / GSFC1:
May 24 1032 GMT 19:18
May 22 1040 GMT 11:56
The ascendant is the most sensitive point in an astrological chart because it marks the place where the Heavens meet the Earth to give birth to a new era of Venus.
We notice that in both charts (see below) the Ascendant is in mutable signs, the first being Sagittarius, a fire sign, associated with a dynamic and active expression of the events, and second being Virgo, earth sign, meaning that the spiritual initiations of fire came to fruition among the people towards the end of the period, in the 13th century. As all the other common signs, Sagittarius and Virgo represent the end of an era, but also the transition to a new one.
If in the first chart the Sagittarius Ascendant indicates the pursuit of a spiritual ideal, in the second, the Virgo Ascendant shows the work serving that ideal, the necessary sacrifices for its attainment.
We get the same clue from Saturn, the principle of limitation, a symbol for austerity and obstacles, which is in the sign of Cancer in his detriment, hidden in the 8th house, in the first chart, as his action was not visibly, openly expressed, while in the second chart, he is in Libra, the sign of his Exaltation, in the second house, meaning that frugality, hard work, austere conditions were respected as values in those days.
From the history chronicles we find that the period (1032-1274) was marked by the Christianization of all of Europe and by the Crusades, religious wars sanctioned by the pope aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule. In the Holy Land, Crusades began in 1095 and continued until 1291, leading to the revival of the papacy in Europe. During this time, the Byzantine power was declining while in Europe the rise of Norman domination is intensified together with the prominent role of the pope in the decision-making process at the great courts of Europe.
We notice that in both charts, Jupiter as ruler of the clergy culminates in the MC, meaning that religion, theology and knowledge of the laws were of high importance. But he is in Exile in the first chart in the sign of Virgo and then, in Gemini, which means that his action was apparently diminished, directed towards materialism. Thus, the abundance and opportunities he could have had brought had been wasted.
The history of this period of the Middle Ages was defined by the birth of several religious orders, including: the Cistercian Order, founded in 1098, as a reformed suborder of the Benedictines, the oldest Western religious order. In 1119, the Catholic military order of Templars was founded, one of the most powerful and richest Christian institutions with an important role in the financial world of the period.
It was the time when philosophy and religion culminated with the teachings of Francis of Assisi, the founder of the Franciscan Order, the patron of merchants, one of the most important religious figures of all time.
Also, between 1265 and 1274, Thomas Aquinas wrote “Summa Theologiae”, one of the most influential manuscripts in the history and philosophy of European civilization, a compendium of the main theological teachings of the Catholic Church.
Venus, the goddess of harmony and peace is angular in both charts. If in the first chart, she makes a rough square to Jupiter in Virgo, in the second, she joins him by conjunction, symbolizing her support of the activities of the clergy and the pope, as the supreme authority in Europe. Venus in Gemini comes to assist the power of partnerships and diplomatic relations through the flow of financial resources in trade, politics and economy.
In the first chart (1032), Mercury in Gemini in the 7th house, as the ruler of Jupiter and the Sun shows that the authorities and the clergy pursued the same objectives, and the nature of the relations between the two institutions was contractual, commercial, and directed towards profit.
But the powerful mercurial influence brought also the divide of the greatest state power, the Catholic Church is founded due to the Great Schism of 1054 – Mercury of Gemini in the seventh house squares Jupiter in Virgo.
Mercury as the final dispositor of the chart tells us that the power of the written word, of learning, and of manuscripts, contracts was the most important in establishing trade relations.
We get the same clue from the fixed star, Capella conjunct Mercury. As it has the nature of Mercury and Mars, this star brings eminence, honors, fame, it shows the pleasure of learning and interest in research. I was not surprised to find out that the first medieval universities were founded during this period, where art, theology, the law and medicine were studied.
Under the protection of the great Gothic cathedrals, the intellectual movement known as Scholastics is founded which promoted Aristotle’s teachings and explained the Christian doctrines by logical reasoning.
In addition to empowering writing, education and intellect, Mercury, the principle of communication and contacts intensified transports, trade, exchanges of all kinds. We also learn from Mars in Leo in the 9th house that war, military power, conflicts were important in order to gain advantages in international transportation, especially maritime transports.
The first buds of capitalism appear by the rigorous and practical exploitation of limited resources. In 1193, the first guild of merchants appeared, new guilds of tradesmen and craftsmen stand out which joint-ventured for common, political, economic or religious purposes.
The intricacy of the society of that time was enforced by the power of commercial transactions (Mercury) as Venus turned from the goddess of beauty into the queen of the financial world, of merchants and bankers to support the processes of evolution towards a more civilized and educated world.
The eight years that pass between the two moments are fertile periods of processing the new ideas and changes, in which there is a progress of consciousness regarding the nature of the world.
In the second chart (1040), we notice that Venus, the ruler of the 2nd house (Libra) and of the 9th (Taurus) is angular which further emphasizes the importance of financial resources, places for money-making activities, financial and banking institutions, stock exchanges as well as international transports, university and religion-related activities.
In the twelfth century, the need to transfer large sums of money to finance the Crusades stimulated the emergence of the banking system in Western Europe. In 1162, Henry II of England levied a tax to support the crusades—the first of a series of taxes levied by Henry over the years with the same objective. The Templars therefore acted as Henry’s bankers in the Holy Land.
Saturn in Libra in the 2nd house of financial resources tells us that money were not easily earned, on the contrary, there were considerable taxes that people had to pay. However, Mars in Aquarius in the 6th house trine Saturn in Libra and Venus in Gemini may explain why the warriors were among the richest men in those days. Most often, the wars were carried by mercenaries who were in the service of the authorities – Mars in Aquarius trine the Sun in Gemini from the 10th house.
By the end of the 12th century, both the Kingdom of France and the House of Anjou relied primarily on mercenaries to form their armies as they were available throughout the year, unlike the knights who were off work during certain periods in order to provide for their castles.
On a more mundane note, Mercury in Cancer, ruler of the Ascendant, in mutual reception with the Moon in Virgo can tell us that people from those days were more concerned with the expression of their own condition through words, gestures, feelings and impressions. Thus, Venus brought the appearance of troubadours, the poets – singers who wrote mainly about chivalry and courtly love, many were humorous or vulgar satires. This profession was considered of great honor – both the Moon in the sign of Virgo and Mercury in the sign of Cancer are in the triplicity of Venus by day, which is in the 10th house.
The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes, with social, political and economic transformations that brought the intellectual revival of the Western Europe, with strong philosophical and scientific roots. These changes had paved the way for further achievements, such as the Italian Renaissance of the 15th century and the scientific revolutions of the 17th century.
To be continued…
Member of Romanian Astrologers Association
Articolul este disponibil în revista Astrele și în limba română.